Part I: ORGANIZATIONS
I. 1. Conceptual Remarks
In contemporary society, human activity is subject to a
structuring and organization process, both on individual and on social
level. The need for activity organization is generated by the need to
obtain better results and efficiency, being determined by the isolated
individualís awareness of his limitations on bio-physical and psycho-social
level. The subjective needs of individuals (sociability, need for affiliation)
also led to the organization development. Thus, we can say that modern
human beings feel the need to participate in organizations.
The research carried out in this respect reveal important
individual and social gains, namely:
- Development and improvement of individual skills by
cooperation in an organized structure that places the individual where
his skills become more valuable.
- Rational use and considerable reduction of the time
put in for various activities.
- Taking over, transmission and systematic use of previous
It is clear that organized activity is characterized by
clear-cut goals, by an exact definition of statuses and roles, according
to objectives, tasks and skills, by an accurate activity description
(labor division). In addition, communication networks and hierarchical
structures gradually generated the development of organizational structures.
A thorough examination of the environment we live in reveals
the fact that most our activities take place in highly structured frameworks,
although we are not always aware of it. Family life is also influenced
by social organizations, though not directly. Thus, numerous researchers
consider modern human being an organizational person, given his participation
in various types of organizations Ė professional, economic, cultural,
In this respect it is obvious that, organizations need
people to exist. Where there are human beings, there are organizations,
too. But they represent more than a group of individuals. They also
have a trans-individual dimension.
In fact, what is an organization? Generally, an organization
is defined as a system of activities structured in accordance with certain
distinct ends (goals), involving a large number of persons with specific
roles and statuses within a differentiated structure, in charge with
activity coordination. This definition gives us the organizationís features:†
goals that motivate individuals participating in the respective activities.
Any organization represents a relatively stable combination of human
and material resources needed to fulfill certain goals. Organizational
goals are trans-individual, expressing the organization as a whole,
its general orientation and policy. Nevertheless, they should not ignore
or overlook the goals and aspirations of individuals in the organization,
but integrate them in the organization’s goals.
Organization’s goals not only set the course of activities,
- influence the perception and assessment of stages,
coordinating the legal field,
- provide action and decision criteria for its members,
- coordinate and set organizationís rules and plans,
- facilitate control, motivate its members in achieving
- demonstrate the power of coordination and leadership,
- create and maintain the identity and the common spirit.
Organizational goals started to play an important role
in adult learning only in the past 10-15 years. The reason was an increasing
competition in the financing of learning activities for adults. Any
institution providing educational programs for adults, dependent on
external financial support, must set and adjust its institutional goals
to the market segment it focuses on. Here, institutional goals interfere
with the teaching ones. In our opinion, the institutional goals should
prevail. The market economy type of thinking regarding adult education
can bring about negative effects that partially prevent learning institutions
from carrying out their basic teaching role. Given the ever-growing
dynamics of education in our society, we must carefully and rigorously
set goals, as well as constantly assess and review them. This process
is represented in figure 1 (Nuissl, 2002, p. 23):