Emil Păun and Anca Nedelcu

Cuprins Pagina de start eBooks
Despre autori



III. Management of Adults Education Institutions – general overview

III. 1. Short historical perspective

A significant moment in the evolution of management theories is attributed to Frederick Taylor’s contributions concerning the theory of Scientific Management developed in the late nineteenth century. The theory is based on the idea of measuring each person's output, to find the most cost-effective method of accomplishing the work and finally to maximize output by analyzing each task at the lowest level.

In contrast to Taylor's micro-level approach to management, Henri Fayol (1967/1949) developed a macro-level approach, followed by different other replica. For example, as a response to the Scientific Management methods of Taylor and Fayol, Mary Parker Follett (1924) was influential in developing an awareness of individuals in unfortunate circumstances. She began by forming evening classes and placement services for women in industry, concluding that that an employee would be more productive if company goals were mutually beneficial to both the organization and the individual.

Later, Elton Mayo’s studies (1933) precipitated a new era in the study and practice of management and organization, concluding that employees respond not only to management mandates, but also to the ways in which they interact each other on the job: the logic of sentiment.

McGregor’s studies (1960) led to the understanding that two kinds of management assumptions about the employees permeate the workplace, each stimulating different kind of employee productivity. One assumption is that people basically dislike work and consequently need to be told what to do, view which has been called Theory X. The other assumption was that people seek pleasure in their work and therefore should participate in making decisions about that work. This view was called Theory Y. It was soon learned that management can increase the norms of productivity by involving employees in decision making and by organizing them to work within a group context (Snyder and Anderson, 1986, p. 8).

The development of such theories constituted a base for the more recent evolution, some of them continuing, developing or overcoming their ideas. A more recent combination between the ideas of Scientific Management with the ideas of the Human Relations Movement (Follett, 1924) is attributed to Chester Barnard (1966). Barnard wrote that organizations only exist through the willingness of the people who work there to serve and communicate with each other for a common purpose. The result achieved through this cooperation is called effectiveness.

Others notable positions concerning management, easy to be applied to AEI are Experiential Theory, Environmental Theory or Intellectual one, Perception Theory (Kelly, 1955), Needs TGheory (Maslow, 1970), Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg, 1966), Growth Theory (Argyris, 1960), and Self-Concept Theory (Super & Bohn, 1970), 3-D Theory  (William Reddin) or Situational Theory (Hersey and Blanchard).

As it is obvious to be noted, the range of these positions – selective presented – is very wide. In this context, it is clear that the role of the manager is more complex, the selection of an adequate option suitable to his/her position, organistional goals and purpose.


Cuprins Pagina de start eBooks
Despre autori


© Universitatea din Bucureşti 2003. All rigths reserved. No part of the text may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the University of Bucharest, except for short quotations with the indication of the website adress and the web page. This book was first published by Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti ISBN: 973-575-815-6
Comments to: Emil Păun and Anca Nedelcu
Last update: Noiembrie 2003
Web designer, Text editor: Annemarie Lihaciu