III. Management of Adults Education Institutions –
III. 1. Short historical perspective
A significant moment in the evolution of management theories
is attributed to Frederick Taylor’s contributions concerning the
theory of Scientific Management developed in the late nineteenth century.
The theory is based on the idea of measuring each person's output, to
find the most cost-effective method of accomplishing the work and finally
to maximize output by analyzing each task at the lowest level.
In contrast to Taylor's micro-level approach to management,
Henri Fayol (1967/1949) developed a macro-level approach, followed by
different other replica. For example, as a response to the Scientific
Management methods of Taylor and Fayol, Mary Parker Follett (1924) was
influential in developing an awareness of individuals in unfortunate
circumstances. She began by forming evening classes and placement services
for women in industry, concluding that that an employee would be more
productive if company goals were mutually beneficial to both the organization
and the individual.
Later, Elton Mayo’s studies (1933) precipitated a
new era in the study and practice of management and organization, concluding
that employees respond not only to management mandates, but also to
the ways in which they interact each other on the job: the logic of
McGregor’s studies (1960) led to the understanding
that two kinds of management assumptions about the employees permeate
the workplace, each stimulating different kind of employee productivity.
One assumption is that people basically dislike work and consequently
need to be told what to do, view which has been called Theory X. The
other assumption was that people seek pleasure in their work and therefore
should participate in making decisions about that work. This view was
called Theory Y. It was soon learned that management can increase the
norms of productivity by involving employees in decision making and
by organizing them to work within a group context (Snyder and Anderson,
1986, p. 8).
The development of such theories constituted a base for
the more recent evolution, some of them continuing, developing or overcoming
their ideas. A more recent combination between the ideas of Scientific
Management with the ideas of the Human Relations Movement (Follett,
1924) is attributed to Chester Barnard (1966). Barnard wrote that organizations
only exist through the willingness of the people who work there to serve
and communicate with each other for a common purpose. The result achieved
through this cooperation is called effectiveness.
Others notable positions concerning management, easy to
be applied to AEI are Experiential Theory, Environmental Theory or Intellectual
one, Perception Theory (Kelly, 1955), Needs TGheory (Maslow, 1970),
Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg, 1966), Growth Theory (Argyris,
1960), and Self-Concept Theory (Super & Bohn, 1970), 3-D Theory
(William Reddin) or Situational Theory (Hersey and Blanchard).
As it is obvious to be noted, the range of these positions
– selective presented – is very wide. In this context, it
is clear that the role of the manager is more complex, the selection
of an adequate option suitable to his/her position, organistional goals