V. 2. Communication Management
Education – both formal, institutional and also informal
– is based on interpersonal communication.
Conceived as an exchange of messages (encoded or not) between
two or several individuals, communication continues to represent a big
question mark in what the success or the failure of relationships between
various individuals or between an individual and a group is concerned.
In all organizations, the management structures, starting with the inferior
and up to the highest ones, place a great deal of attention on inside
communication, as well as on communication with the exterior. Inside,
in order to facilitate an appropriate organizational climate, which
is absolutely necessary in order for the organizational objectives to
be met; outside, in order to have the best image possible – this
being the first premises for its success in the respective field of
Although we are talking about adults who choose to learn
out of various reasons, it is obvious that the communication process
becomes more and more important as the interest of the grown-up for
a certain educational program increases.
Communication can have different shapes: when words are
used, we are dealing with oral verbal communication. But, there are
cases when communication is also using words, but this time, written
words. In this case, we are dealing with written verbal communication.
For instance, the poster or the leaflet realized by the
education provider has an advertising content. In order to draw the
attention and to raise the interest of potential beneficiaries, the
education provider will put together a brief message, where appropriate
words and phrases shall be used and logically interconnected and the
essential ones shall be underlined. If the education provider has a
good financial situation, the leaflet will also include pictures, drawings,
graphs and charts. Thus, he also includes image communication.
Quite often, the trainers or the educators use a certain
mimic and certain gestures, which are generically called body language
in order to underline or emphasize certain ideas, feelings and attitudes.
Facial expression, hand and body movements, cloths, intonations and
other such elements are important features of the non-verbal communication
that contribute to a better understanding of the message that is being
conveyed through the communication process whose main goals are:
- to be heard
- to be understood
- to be accepted
- to trigger a reaction (to determine a behavior
or attitude change) (Stanton, 1995)
Of course, these goals are considered both for the interpersonal
communication or when a person/group of persons communicates with another
group (movies, theater shows, theater performances, TV shows, distance
learning etc.). From this perspective, communication is efficient up
to the extent to which the effect triggered by the emitter on the receiver
is the one the message provider (emitter) had in mind.
This effect triggered into the receiver (student) by this
communication process is directly proportional with a volume and a quality
of the received information; all the more reason to pay an appropriate
attention to the way in which the messages are being formulated, the
communication channel and the feed-back generated by the receiver.
It is also true the fact that, when we deal with pedagogical
communication (a particular case of interpersonal communication focused
on learning), efficiency is influenced by the receiver capacity to listen
actively. Specialized literature allocates quite a wide space to this
aspect of communication.
An efficient pedagogical/didactic communication implies:
a) for the emitter
- formulating the messages as clearly and accurately
as possible, without any ambiguity;
- using an adequate language (rigorous from a
scientific point of view and correct from a grammatical point of
- adapting the content of the message to the
particularities of the receiver (age, training level, interests
- obtaining feed-back;
- repeating the messages with a higher degree
b) for the receiver
- active reasoning;
- the existence of a previous training necessary
for this learning process;
- knowledge with regard to the language used
by the educator;
- providing feed-back to the emitter.
Barriers might appear in the way of the adult education
communication process. Some of these barriers are related to the emitter
(the education provider) others to the receiver (student); also, some
barriers appear in the case of the communication channel and others
in the case of the communication environment. Those connected to the
emitter mainly refer to conveying confuse messages or using an inadequate
The receiver can face difficulties in perceiving the message
either because of the fact that he is not paying enough attention when
the message is being conveyed or because of the fact that he doesn’t
have the necessary training and cannot understand the message or simply
because he is not familiarized with the language used by the emitter.
As for the environment, this may influence the pedagogical/didactic
communication when disturbing factor occur (noise, heat, cold, improper
illumination, tiredness etc.) or when the educational process is not
adapted to the specificity of that communication.
According to Torrington and Hall (cit in Painisoara, 2003,
p. 51-52), there are five barriers that might hinder the communication.
- Barriers in conveying the message – these
appear only at emitter level; they are concretized in conveying messages
that are not perceived as such, in the existence of inadequate information
within the message and prejudices with regard to the message or the
- Barriers at the receiving end – these show both
in the case of the receiver and in the case of the environment; In
the first instance, we deal with needs, anxieties, beliefs, values,
attitudes, opinions, prejudices and the level of attention offered
to the stimulus and in the second instance we deal with a conjugated
effect of other stimuli that exist within that environment.
- Barriers in the way of understanding – these
are located both at the emitting end (semantics and jargon, length
of the communication and communication channel) and also at the receiving
end (semantics connections, listening abilities, specialized knowledge,
- Acceptance barriers – these are the only ones
perceived by the two players as acting at the level of all parties
involved (emitter, receptor and environment); thus, from the emitter’s
point of view these are represented by personal characteristics, dissonant
behaviors, attitudes and opinions, beliefs and values; from the receiver’s
point of view they are represented by attitudes, opinions, and prejudices,
beliefs and values, openness to new ideas; at the level of the environment
we deal with the interpersonal conflict, emotional factors, status
- Action barrier – this is also manifested at the
level of the emitter (memory, level of acceptance) and also the receiver
(memory, attention, openness to change, personal characteristics).
If these barriers that might hinder interpersonal and group
communication are known, both parties involved in educational activities
might prevent and/or overcome them, thus, facilitating an efficient
In modern pedagogy, communication pedagogy, the emphasis
is placed on educational interaction methods and ion using multimedia
means that facilitate the educational process.