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The magical-philosophical background of European history
Ever since the most ancient times, the cult of mysteries has fascinated and therefore knowledge about them and their evolution has become a permanent preoccupation. If, in the beginning, a certain type of esotericism had belonged to religion, being preserved and passed on in the initiatory circles of the priests, in a revengeful move of history, when they gave it up in an attempt to purify the religious dogma, it was taken over by the laymen, who preserved its secret and initiatory character precisely to protect those who practiced it from the church. Relevant in this regard is the outlook of Rene Guenon, who thinks there is a fundamental opposition between royalty and sacerdotalism. In his book Le Roi du Monde  , Guenon speaks of the existence, in all ancient civilizations, of the notion of King of the World, representing the primordial universal Legislator, characterized by Justice and Peace (both basic notions of Kabbalah). Whether it is called Manu by the Hindus, Mina or Menes by the Egyptians, Menw by the Celts or Minos by the Greeks, this term does not name a figure, but a principle, ”the cosmic Intelligence, which reflects the pure spiritual Light and formulates the Law adjusted to the condition of the world or of the current existential cycle”, and at the same time the human archetype. On the other hand, within the preoccupation to preserve the sacred tradition, the head of the initiatory hierarchy has, by definition, a pontifical character. In fact, this has to do with the very meaning of the word: builder of bridges (which reminds of the Masonic symbolism), mediator of communication between the world below and the higher realms. (This might also be the source of the universal symbolism of the rainbow — celestial bridge — for the pontificate. In Judaism the rainbow is also the symbol of God’s covenant with the People of Israel). In Guenon’s view, the balance might have been reached by uniting these two complementary aspects of authority — royalty and sacerdotalism. (Such an attempt may be identified at the origins of Christianity, in the story of the three Magi-Kings). Yet, they were probably never more formally separated than in the Middle Ages, when Royalty and Sacerdotalism were at constant war. Rejected by the Church, esotericism became the ”royal tradition”, precisely in order to evidence the intention to preserve the initiatory secret. Ironically, it was even adopted by a number of European kings, who encouraged, or took direct part in, the practice of its rituals. Under the threat of being burnt at the stake, underlines Julius Evola  , Guenon’s disciple, the Hermeticists preferred to occult this rituals behind practices more easily accepted by the Church, such as, for instance, the alchemy of transmutation of humble metals into gold and silver. A true mnemotechnical science based on an entire system of symbols evolved in order to allow the transmission of the esoteric teachings to the next generations of ”philosophers”. Ioan Petru Culianu even called it the Art of Memory  . On the other hand, however, one must recall that, paradoxically, the Royal Art was practiced for a long time by respected priests as well.
Although it is obvious that each religion and each people has had, at some point in their past, a cult of mysteries, in the given case of Western Europe the main inheritance comes from the Greek and Roman mysteries, in which is also included something from other esoteric traditions, with which the two nations came into contact. History records a particular fascination of the Europeans for Egypt, which has led to a vast combination of motives. The more indirect was their access to the source, the greater was the fascination. The Western European reader found out about the Egyptian esoteric tradition from the Greeks through the Romans (or, more correctly, through the Latin language). The information would often come by devious routes, passing through the Middle East, through the hands — but also the minds — of Jews — but also Arabs. On the other hand, European thinking has known, at the same time, the more interesting but also more insidious influence, because it has often acted in a direct manner, of the Jewish mysteries. This influence was constant and mutual because, unlike the old mysteries, taken over by the European heirs and developed by themselves, Jewish mysticism continued to evolve in parallel with European thinking, so that the exchange of views was permanent.
1. Hermes Trismegistos
Various forms of an esoteric tradition undoubtedly continued to exist in Europe all the time, suffering diverse influences and modifications. Nevertheless, the key moment in this preoccupation with the occult is considered to be the adoption during the Renaissance period of the Hermetic tradition  , precisely because Hermeticism tried to gather in a coherent system all existing forms of occultism. The foundation documents of this tradition were the fifteen tractates of astrology, alchemy, theosophy and theurgy of the Corpus Hermeticum, along with the Perfect Sermon of Asclepius. Dated sometime at the end of the 3rd century AD as the writings of an unknown author (or maybe several) in Egypt, they seemed to be just a small part of a once substantial literature attributed to the mythic figure of Hermes Trismegistos  . The texts were collected into a single volume during the Byzantine period and they proved the connections existing between Judaism, Neoplatonism, Gnosticism and Christianity at that time, although it is obvious that each of these traditions had its own answer to the major questions facing mankind.
Just like Sefer ha-Zohar, attributed to the Talmudic Rabbi Simeon bar Yochai, who lived in the 2nd century AD, but ”rediscovered” by Moses of Leon in the 13th century, Corpus Hermeticum was rediscovered by the Platonic Academy of the Medici family in Florence during the 15th century. There it was translated into Lain and published in 1463 under the signature of Marsilio Ficino. In its turn, the Perfect Sermon of Asclepius reached the Renaissance by a different route. It was translated into Latin in ancient times, reputedly by Lucius Apuleius of Madaura himself  . Augustine of Hippo quotes from the old Latin translation at length in his book ”City of God”, and copies of the work remained in circulation in medieval Europe all the way up to the Renaissance. The original Greek version was lost but quotations from it survived in various ancient sources. The Perfect Sermon is substantially longer than any other surviving work of ancient Hermetic philosophy. Some of the topics it touches can also be found in the Corpus Hermeticum, others are original. Thus, there are magic instructions for the manufacture of gods and a long and gloomy prophecy of the decline of Hermetic wisdom and the end of the world.
A tradition passed on by Tertulian  , which can also be found in the Arab alchemical Hermeticism, maintains that the secrets of metals, the forces of magical invocations, ”those strange doctrines that include the science of the stars” and the entire corpus of the magic-Hermetic sciences were disclosed to man by the Fallen Angels. By making use of the Biblical notions, Hermeticism acknowledges, from the very beginning, its Jewish sources. No doubt that between Bnei Elohim (the Sons of God), who descended on Mount Hermon in the Book of Enoch  , those Awake and Watching who came to instruct mankind in the Book of Jubilees, and Prometheus, who taught people the crafts in the Olympic myths there is an obvious parallelism. Hermeticism could have therefore claimed Greek origins. Nevertheless, Hermes Trismegistos says in Corpus Hermeticum: ”The ancient and divine books teach us that certain angels felt a sudden lust for women. They descended on earth and taught people all the operations of Nature. They drew up the [Hermetic] works and from them comes the primary tradition of this Art”.  The Biblical fragment from which everything started is Genesis 6, 1-4: ”And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. And the Lord said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years  . There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown”. Sliviu Lupascu shows  that, although the text does not explicitly mention that God punished His Sons, but only their offspring, the giants, both the Christian and the Jewish traditions have sanctioned as sin the breaking of the balance between the divine and the human plane. After the Adamic Fall, this is the second biblical transposition of the relation between the two realms into erotic terms, in the image of the attraction, which once out of control and turned into practice, becomes fatal. Not by chance in the biblical text the giants are called Nephilim, the fallen ones  . Belonging to a primordial cycle, they end by being regarded as vestiges of the precedent organization of the world, before the Flood, i.e. before the second punishment.
Even the more relevant becomes, in this context, the fact that the last representatives of this semi-human category were defeated with the Jewish conquest of the Canaan  . This is where the break comes in. What loses the Sons of God is their lust for ”woman”. But in esoteric symbolism the ”woman” is related to the female aspect of the divine, to God’s presence on earth and to His Might respectively. From this perspective it may said that the Sons of God lust for the Divine Might. This interpretation seems to have proliferated because, in a paradoxical evolution, at a certain point the texts adopt a negative attitude towards the image of the Celestial Guardians who descended among men. If in the Hebrew Book of Enoch angels Uzza, Azza and Azziel pass on to mankind the magic art so that people may attract the celestial forces down to earth and use them  , in 1 Enoch (the Ethiopian Book of Enoch), dated sometime between the 2nd and 1st century BC, the Fallen Angels are already seen as demonic figures, and in 2 Enoch (the Book of Enoch’s Secrets or the Slavonic Book of Enoch), written in the 1st century AD, a hierarchical organization of this demonic category is already in place, under the leadership of Satanael  , who was thrown by God out of Heavens because he had ”wanted to place his throne higher then the clouds, which are above the earth, so that he could become equal in power” with God.
Evidently, from the point of view of the religious authority the problem consisted precisely in the popular belief that these Nephilim possessed and had passed on to mankind, indiscriminately, the celestial secrets. That is why in 1 Enoch we read that, although they had lived in Heavens, the Guardians had had no access to the divine mysteries, and the secrets they had revealed to women would have thus been perverted secrets, causing a lot of trouble on earth. Obviously, such a veiled threat could but incite peoples’ interest in magic. The idea of an indirect but indiscriminate access to the divine mysteries continued to fascinate mankind and apparently provided the basis for the esoteric tradition, which Hermeticism tried to preserve.
Naturally, between the moment when the Corpus Hermeticum was written and the moment when it was rediscovered, new elements of Jewish, Neoplatonic, Gnostic and Christian esotericism emerged in Europe, both locally and imported from — or through — the Middle East. In the 8th and 9th centuries, when Baghdad was an important intellectual center, a large number of classical Neoplatonic and Gnostic works reached Spain through the Emirate of Cordoba, being translated from Arabic into Latin in the universities of Saragosa and Granada. By an irony of fate, removed soon after their emergence as heresies, these types of esotericism were preserved by various groups, which later returned them to Europe with increased force. There are, for instance, indications that once banned, Gnostic esotericism was adopted by Bogomilists, Aryans and Arab scholars and returned to Europe through the Cathars and through Moorish Spain.
to Hermeticism, it is worth mentioning that the Church Fathers, who were
never shy of leaning on pagan sources to prove a Christian point, made extensive
use of this literature in their writings, accepting a chronology, which
dated Hermes Trismegistos as a historical figure to the time of Moses
. As a result, the elements borrowed by the Corpus Hermeticum from Jewish
scripture, and the Platonic philosophy, were regarded, in the Renaissance,
as evidence that it had anticipated and influenced both
. The Hermetic philosophy thus became the primordial wisdom tradition,
identified with the ”wisdom of the Egyptians” mentioned in Exodus
but also in Plato’s Timaeus. Along with other texts of astrology,
alchemy and magic attributed to Hermes Trismegistos, the Corpus Hermeticum
and the Perfect Sermon were used as a strong weapon in the attempt to reestablish
magic as a socially acceptable spiritual path in the Christian West. If
Hermes Trismegistos was a historical figure approved by the Church Fathers
and his writings could be quoted as proofs for Christian viewpoints, then
the whole structure of magical Hermeticism became legitimate. In fact, let
us not forget that in Matthew 13:10-11, when the disciples ask him ”why
speakest thou unto them in parables?” Jesus himself answers: ”Because
it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but
to them it is not given”. Christ seems to practice here a selective
—which is only natural, by definition esotericism is addressed
to an elite of initiates, what is accessible to all is exoteric. However,
as we all know, the Church never adopted Jesus’ viewpoint, preferring
the ”Church for all” version. Its negative reaction was in direct
proportion with the impetus taken by the Hermetic tradition during the Renaissance.
In an analysis of the fundamental myths of the various ancient civilizations, Julius Evola identifies  the recurrent motive of a deed presenting a fundamental risk and incertitude, and finds that in all of them the interpretation of such a deed evidences the emergence of two opposite conceptions: heroic-magic and religious. From the viewpoint of theology, Adam has committed the capital sin and therefore no longer has access to the Tree of Knowledge, protected by the Cherub’s sword. But from the perspective of magic, since Adam has succeeded in touching the Tree and thus knows the secret, the experience is duplicable. The flame does not die but it is ”passed on and purified in the Secret tradition of the Royal Art, which in certain Hermetic texts is explicitly identified with Magic, and tends to create a second ”Wood of Life”, to replace the lost one, and is aimed at that access ’to the heart of the Tree in the middle of the earthly Paradise’, which implies a terrible fight”, explains Julius Evola  . On the other hand, however, it is obvious that such an enterprise could not enjoy the divine approval. The negative implications suggest that the Royal Art is a means to constrain God to participate in the magic act, a way of forcing the divine hand. If God doesn’t answer prayer, He will most certainly react to the appropriate stimulation. From this view to demonic invocation there was only a step, enthusiastically taken during the Renaissance. From this perspective, the secret hidden by the Tree of Good and Evil is that man is equal to, or even higher than, the celestial gods. ”For no god leaves his realm to descend on earth, while man does ascend to the skies and measures him. That is why we dare say that man is a mortal god and an Uranian god is an immortal man”, assures Hermes Trismegistos  . It is therefore easy to understand why Hermeticism swept Renaissance people off their feet.
As mentioned before, the opposition between the magic and the religious did not prevent the existence, in the period providing the object of this study, of a permanent intertwinement of the two planes, particularly materialized in the magical practices of representatives of the religious authority. But even in these cases, we are obviously dealing with clerics with visible philosophical inclinations. Reviewing the list of personalities who adopted it, one may notice that, practiced more or less officially in other religions (Judaism, Islamism), magic was infiltrated in medieval Christianity by philosophy. If astrology and alchemy, in their turn inheritances from the Hermetic tradition, had re-emerged in Western Europe, particularly by means of the Arab writings, since the 11th century, and were used as ”natural sciences”, magic was not officially adopted until the Corpus Hermeticum was translated by the Neoplatonic philosopher Marsilio Ficino in the 15th century.
An important aspect in the evolution of magic during the Renaissance, which must be taken into account for a better understanding of this movement’s phenomenology, is its direct relation with the erotic. Michel de Certeau argues  that the erotic emerged in the Renaissance culture as the outcome of a mystical nostalgia for the disappearance of God as Unique object of love, being the result of a break-up and an absence. Starting with the 13th century the demythologization of religion seems to be accompanied by a progressive mythification of love. Thus, in Certeau’s view, a transformation occurred of faith into eroticism. This provided the grounds for the later development of the female symbolism during the Renaissance. In his turn, Ioan Petru Culianu considers  that one of the essential elements of the erotic rite is the occultation of love, seen, however, as the voluntary act of removing the object of love. In any case, what is evident is the fact that Renaissace Hermeticism made maximum use of magical eroticism in literature and of erotic magic in practice.
Since this study is focused on the influence of Jewish mysticism on Renaissance thinking, several key elements from this point of view must be mentioned in this context. As mentioned earlier here, the Hermetic tradition is based on the very interpretation of an act mentioned in the Jewish Holy Scriptures, which Silviu Lupașcu plastically calls ”erotic trade”  . Regarded from the erotic perspective, in Hermeticism the relation between the human and the divine plane gives knowledge and power (in symmetrical opposition with kabbalistic mysticism). In its turn, Jewish mysticism starts from a three-fold erotic act — Adam and Eve, Adam and Lilith/Snake, Lilith/Snake and Eve. At the core of its preoccupations there is always an erotic relation. Whether it deals with the interaction between Sefira Tiferet and Sefira Malkhut, as the male and respectively female aspects of the divine, or, by extrapolation, with the relation between the Tzaddik (righteous man = human plane) and the Shekhinah (God’s presence in the world = divine plane), any mystical experience has in Judaism an erotic side. Among the kabbalistic rituals there is one of the wedding between God and the Community of Israel, seen as the King and His Matron, which is celebrated during Shavuot, the Festival of the Week, on the fiftieth day after the Pessach (Passover)  . The celebration of the Shabbat as a sacred wedding indicates the source of the Sabbatical ritual of magic, even though in the second case it deals with the demonic realm. Thus, for the adepts of Hermeticism the primordial force has a female nature (equivalent with the Tree), which reminds of the female aspect of the divine in Judaism. Moreover, the woman is seen as the wife of the God and implicitly as His power, just like the Shekhinah in Kabbalah. Both in Hermeticism and in Jewish esotericism the four primordial elements are Fire, Water, Air and Earth. In the Hermetic emanation process of these natural elements Water / female (Moon) principle is the passive manifestation of Fire / active male (Sun) principle, just like the passive female attribute (Hokhmah) emanates from the active male attribute of God (Keter).
But the influence of Jewish esotericism on Renaissance Hermeticism is perhaps best visible in the magic rituals themselves. Quoting from various sources, Culianu reminds that: ”in their magical practices, the theurgists often made use of a golden disc (strophalos) engraved with mystical signs and with a sapphire in its center. It could be spun with the help of a leather belt, while the theurgist would say magical formulas and, from time to time, utter inarticulated sounds imitating the voices of animals to scare away the evil spirits”  . Among the magical symbols spread on these strophalos, the one made up of two semicircles and the Greek letter X reminded Christians (Justin the Martyr) of Moses’ cross with a serpent of brass (Numbers 21:9).
Still, the most relevant aspect is related to what Culianu calls the ”emonomagic”. The structure of the demonic realm in Renaissance magic reveals a spectacular imagination (or better said series of imaginations). No doubt, this realm includes a mixture of the most varied notions, taken from the most diverse mythologies, amongst which the Judaic one is easily traceable. Starting from the works of Jamblichus  , the supra-terrestrial beings of the Renaissance period were divided into several classes: the hyper-celestial gods and the stars’ souls or the celestial gods, the archangels, the angels, the demons, the principalities, the heroes, the princes and the uprooted human souls. If the gods, the souls and the principalities come from other sources, it is obvious that the archangels, the angels, the demons, the heroes and the princes come from Judaism. We already know who the heroes are. In their turn, the archangels and the angels are loosely the same with those described in Jewish mythology. As for the princes, we must recall that Enoch / Metraton is also called Sar ha-Panim, Prince of the Divine Face. Even though their image was filtered, even the demons still show many of their Jewish traits, including the classification into good and evil.
Things become even more interesting when we read in the works of Byzantine author Mihail Psellos  that demons are capable to release seed and may be born in animal bodies, and moreover, they are all females. Opinions in this regard have varied along the time, oscillating between radical positions and positions that Culianu calls ”moderate”, which maintain that in reality demons are transsexual, so that they may equally act upon both sexes. Nevertheless, the attraction for female demons remains relevant here, for it reminds of the Jewish demonic line launched by Lilith, in her capacity of succubus. But, as we’ve seen in an earlier chapter, even Lilith is seen in Kabbalah as both female and male, being able to mate both with Adam and Eve  . In addition, as Gershom Scholem shows  , in Judaism there had been exorcising rituals for both incubus and succubus since as early as the 6th century, which seems to indicate its precedence over the witchcraft practiced in Christianity. According to the legend, Lilith found out and pronounced the Divine Name, and then retired in the caverns by the Red Sea. The more interesting becomes, under the circumstances, the Red Sea symbolism present in Hermetic alchemy: ”He who is curious to know what is this ’ All-in-everyting’ [indicated as purpose of the Art] should give the Earth large Wings, corner it so much that it would have to rise and fly higher than any mountain, to the firmament, and then break its wings with the force of Fire, so as to fall in the Red Sea”, explains Basile Valentin  . But, as Evola underlines, here the Red Sea is a symbol of the affirmative principle. On the other hand, however, we must remember that the Hermetic tradition has by definition a negative connotation, because it does not rely on the benevolent participation of the divine in the alchemic process, but on forcing the divine participation in the magic act, by conjuration.
Both in Kabbalah and in Renaissance Hermeticism we are dealing, in fact, with the same view of a negative eroticism, which distracts man from the righteous path. Even though the blame is thrown on demons, in reality this refers to an attraction towards the unknown divine powers, regarded from a sexual viewpoint. In both cases the aim of the theurgical exercise is to obtain knowledge of the demonic realm in order to be able to control it. Not by chance the Hermetic tradition counts among its sources the magic practices of King Solomon, of whose thousand wives Kabbalah says that they were as many demonic powers.
Between medieval Hermeticism and Kabbalah there is, however, a major difference. If, for the kabbalist the demonic realm is important precisely so that he could keep it away during the process of restoration of the original harmony and repair of the world (Tikkun Olam), for the Hermeticist this knowledge is necessary so that he could conjure the demons and force them to take part in the magic act, whose finality is not always positive.
Certeau, Michel de, Fabula mistică, secolele 16 — 17, Polirom, Iasi 1996.
Culianu, Ioan Petru, Eros şi Magie în Renaştere. 1484, Nemira, Bucharest, 1994.
Evola, Julius, Tradiţia Hermetică, Humanitas, Bucharest, 1999.
Gavriluta, Nicu, Culianu, jocurile minţii şi lumile multidimensionale, Polirom, Iaşi 2000.
Greer, John Michael, An Introduction to the Corpus Hermeticum, on-line essay.
Guenon, Rene, Le Roi du Monde, Les Editions Traditionnelles, Paris 1950.
Moshe, Cabbala, Nuove prospettive,
Kinney, Jay, Esoterica: Overlooked and Undervalued, on-line essay.
Lupaşcu, Silviu, Sfinţi
Ascunşi Călăuzitori de Măgari, Fides,
Nataf, Andre, The Wordsworth Dictionary of the Occult, W&R Chambers 1991.
Gershom, Cabala şi Simbolistica
 Rene Guenon, Le Roi du Monde, Les Editions Traditionnelles, Paris 1950.
 Julius Evola, Tradiţia Hermetică, Humanitas, Bucharest, 1999.
 As Nicu Gavriluţă shows in his analysis of Culianu’s works, he was fascinated with, and developed an entire theory of, what he called the Art of Memory, in which he also included the sacred memory (Nicu Gavriluță, Culianu, jocurile minţii şi lumile multidimensionale, Polirom, Iaşi 2000).
 As an irony of fate, the moment of its adoption did not coincide with the moment of its birth (3rd century) but with that of its rediscovery (15th century).
 A Hellenistic fusion of the ancient Greek god Hermes with the Egyptian god Toth, Hermes Trismegistos became the patron of Hermeticism due to the conception that he transmitted light by a process of occultation. His world is one of symbols, for it contains secrets and secrets brought to light are no longer secrets. The invisible only becomes visible through concealment. The epithet ”Trismegistos”, which appears on the Rosetta Stone, comes from Greek and means ”thrice greatest”. Gnostics identified him with Moses, Christ or St. John, which is not surprising considering that at the heart of all religions there is a mythological figure who passes on secret knowledge (Andre Nataf, The Wordsworth Dictionary of the Occult, W&R Chambers 1991).
 The author of the famous ”Golden Ass”.
 Tertulian, De cultu feminarum I, 2b, quoted by Julius Evola in Tradiţia Hermetică, idem.
 The Book of Enoch, VI, 1-6, VII, 1.
 Berthelot, La Chimie au Moyen-Age, Paris 1893, quoted by Julius Evola in Tradiţia Hermetică, idem, p. 23.
 Number 120 has a special significance in Jewish tradition. The most common birthday wish is ad mea ve-esrim, may you live 120 years! Moreover, the Parliament of the State of Israel has 120 members!
 Silviu Lupaşcu, Sfinţi Ascunşi Călăuzitori de Măgari, Fides, Iaşi 1998.
 From the Hebrew verb naphal, to fall.
 The famous struggle of David and Goliath.
 Moshe Idel, Cabbala, Nuove prospettive, La Giuntina, Firenze, 1996.
 This might be the source of the Christian notions regarding the devils.
 According to John Michael Greer, An Introduction to the Corpus Hermeticum, on-line essay.
 It was only in 1614 that Isaac Casaubon published a detailed textual analysis, which proved that the writings dated from the first centuries AD.
 As Jay Kinney shows in his on-line essay Esoterica: Overlooked and Undervalued.
 Julius Evola, Tradiţia Hermetică, idem.
 Julius Evola, Tradiţia Hermetică, idem, p. 24.
 Corpus Hermeticum, X 24-25, Herald, Bucharest.
 Michel de Certeau, Fabula mistică, secolele 16 — 17, Polirom, Iaşi 1996.
 Ioan Petru Culianu, Eros şi Magie în Renaştere. 1484, Nemira, Bucharest, 1994.
 Silviu Lupaşcu, Sfinţi Ascunşi, Călăuzitori de Măgari, idem.
 Great importance is granted to this festival within the kabbalistic tradition of the 50 gates of understanding.
 Ioan Petru Culianu, Eros şi Magie în Renaştere. 1484, idem, p. 204.
 Quoted by Ioan Petru Culianu, în Eros şi Magie în Renaştere. 1484, idem, p. 26.
 On Demons, II, quoted by Ioan Petru Culianu, în Eros şi Magie în Renaştere. 1484, idem, p. 208.
 The fact that in order to explain the manner in which this double capacity is possible Kabbalah proposes Lilith’s association with Samael is less relevant for the point of view pursued here.
 Gershom Scholem, Cabala şi Simbolistica ei, Humanitas, Bucharest 1992.
 Basile Valentin, Twelve Keys, quoted by Julius Evola, in Tradiţia Hermetică, idem, p. 144.
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